I use some these tips by Olly Richards as he describes how to improve listening skills in foreign language study during his core study time. (Core Study Time In Your Language Routine)
Instead of paying for a transcription, I choose videos from YouTube channels created by native speakers that add accurate subtitles.
I study the words and phrases in the videos by cutting and pasting them into LingQ. I am a LingQ subscriber so I can save sentences and phrases to see later. Sometimes I write phrases and sentences in a notebook. But the I text more than I write by hand, so I work on my computer more often.
I don't limit my practice to 30 second clips of videos. I watch entire videos I want to understand over and over. However, when a video is very long, I break it into smaller chunks. I think I will try the tips in this video and break the foreign language resources down into shorter clips.
Also, because I am watching longer videos, I get less repetition than he describes. But at my level in my target language most of the words I don't remember easily are typical infrequent words that show up seldom. I gain listening comprehension for the videos I have watched three of four times. After watching a show three or for times, if there are words I don't understand, I tend to move it to a playlist I've created for future study. I frequently return to videos I'd like to study at a later date.